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It is because of inability of ns2 electrons of the valence shell to participate in bonding that

(a) Sn2+ is oxidising while Pb4+ is reducing

(b) Sn2+ and Pb2+ are both oxidising and reducing

(c) Sn4+ is reducing while Pb4+ is oxidising

(d) Sn2+ is reducing while Pb4+ is oxidising.

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Ans : (d) Sn2+ is reducing while Pb4+ is oxidising.

Explanation :

Inability of ns2 electrons of the valence shell to participate in bonding on moving down the group in heavier p-block elements is called inert pair effect.

As a result, Pb(II) is more stable than Pb(IV)

Sn(IV) is more stable than Sn(II) 

Pb(IV) is easily reduced to Pb(II)

→ Pb(IV) is oxidising agent

Sn(II) is easily oxidised to Sn(IV)

→ Sn(II) is reducing agent

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