(a) passive absorption
(b) active absorption
(c) increase in transpiration
(d) low osmotic potential in soil.
Ans : (b) active absorption
Rootpressure occurs in the xylem of some vascular plants when the soil moisture level is high either at night or when transpiration is low during the day.
Root pressure is caused by active absorption of mineral nutrient ions into the root xylem. Without transpiration to carry the ions up the stem, they accumulate in the root xylem and lower the water potential.
Water then diffuses from the soil into the root xylem due to osmosis. Root pressure is caused by this accumulation of water in the xylem pushing on the rigid cells.