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The balloon­shaped structures called tyloses

(a) originate in the lumen of vessels

(b) characterise the sapwood

(c) are extensions of xylem parenchyma cells into vessels

(d) are linked to the ascent of sap through xylem vessels.

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Ans: (c) are extensions of xylem parenchyma cells into vessels

Sol: Tyloses are balloon­like extensions of parenchyma cells that protrudes into the lumen of a neighbouring xylem vessel or tracheid through a pit in the cell wall. Tyloses form most commonly in older woody tissue, possibly in response to injury, they may eventually block the vessels and thus help prevent the spread of fungi and other pathogens within the plant. Tyloses may become filled with tannins, gums, pigments, etc., giving heartwood its dark colour, and their walls can remain thin or become lignified.

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Ans: (c) are extensions of xylem parenchyma cells into vessels.

Explanation: ln heart wood, the plasma membrane of nearby paratracheal parenchyma extends into the tracheary elements which blocks the flow of water in trachieds or vessels, these balloon shaped extensions are called tylosis.

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