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Stems modified into flat green organs performing the functions of leaves are known as

(a) phylloclades

(b) scales

(c) cladodes

(d) phyllodes.

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Ans: (a) phylloclades

Sol: Phylloclades are flattened green stems which have taken over the function of photosynthesis while cladodes are only the branches of stem that are modified to take over the function of leaves. Cladodes may not be flattened as in Ruscus aculeatus, cladodes are leaf­like with spiny tip whereas in Asparagus, they are slightly flattened, fleshy, straight or curved pointed structures which develop in clusters in the axil of scale leaves.

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